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Dr. Andrew Friend

Research themes

Resource Dynamics:

Departments and Institutes

Department of Geography:

Research Interests

Andrew Friend's interests concern controls on terrestrial vegetation type, structure, and productivity over a wide range of time and space scales and the effects of vegetation on atmospheric processes through land surface energy partitioning and carbon fluxes. He develops numerical models in order to test our understanding of processes through the ability of these models to faithfully simulate real-world phenomena, as well as address concerns regarding the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and potential future atmospheric feedbacks. He continues to develop an individual-based model of vegetation dynamics, HYBRID, with the aim of producing processed-based representations of land surface processes for coupling to global-scale atmospheric models. His current work is particularly concerned with the representation of physiological differences between plant types and species, the representation of competition, and the global-scale dynamics of biogeochemistry-climate interactions.

Key Publications


  • O'Shea, SJ, Allen G, Gallagher, MW, Bower K, Illingworth, SM, Muller, JBA, Jones B, Percival, CJ, Bauguitte SJ-B, Cain M, Warwick N, Quiquet A, Skiba U, Drewer J, Dinsmore K, Nisbet EG, Lowry D, Fisher RE, France JL, Aurela M, Lohila A, Hayman G, George C, Clark D, Manning AJ, Friend AD, Pyle J. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes and their regional scalability for the European Arctic wetlands during the MAMM project in summer 2012. 2014. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 8455-8494, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-8455-2014
  • Nishina K, Ito A, Beerling DJ, Cadule P, Ciais P, Clark DB, Falloon P, Friend AD, Kahana R, Kato E, Keribin R, Lucht W, Lomas M, Rademacher TT, Pavlick R, Schaphoff S, Vuichard N, Warszawaski L, Yokohata T. 2014. Quantifying uncertainties in soil carbon responses to changes in global mean temperature and precipitation. Earth System Dynamics 5, 197-209, doi:10.5194/esd-5-197-2014
  • Foley AM, Willeit M, Brovkin V, Feulner G, Friend AD. 2014. Quantifying the global carbon response to volcanic stratospheric aerosol radiative forcing using Earth System Models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 1-11, doi:10.1002/2013JD019724


  • Friend AD, Lucht W, Rademacher TT, Keribin R, Betts R, Cadule P, Ciais P, Clark DB, Dankers R, Falloon PD, Ito A, Kahana R, Kleidon A, Lomas MR, Nishina K, Sebastian Ostberg S, RPavlick R, Peylin P, Schaphoff S, Vuichard N, Warszawski L, Wiltshire A, Woodward FI. 2013. Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1222477110
  • Foley AM, Dalmonech D, Friend AD, Aires F, Archibald A, Bartlein P, Bopp L, Chappellaz J, Cox P, Edwards NR, Feulner G, Friedlingstein P, Harrison SP, Hopcroft PO, Jones CD, Kolassa J, Levine JG, Prentice IC, Pyle J, Vázquez Riveiros N, Wolff EW, Zaehle S. 2013. Evaluation of biospheric components in Earth system models using modern and palaeo observations: the state-of-the-art. Biogeosciences 10, 8305-8328, doi:10.5194/bg-10-8305-2013
  • Piontek, F, Müller C, Pugh TAM, Clark DB, Deryng D, Elliott J, Colón-González FJ, Flörke M, Folberth C, Franssen W, Frieler K, Friend AD, Gosling SN, Hemming D, Khabarov N, Kim H, Lomas MR, Masaki Y, Mengel M, Morse A, Neumann K, Nishina K, Ostberg S, Pavlick R, Ruane AC, Schewe J, Schmid E, Stacke T, Tang Q, Tessler ZD, Tompkins AM, Warszawski L, Wisser D, Schellnhuber HJ. 2013. Multi-sectoral climate impact hotspots in a warming world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1222471110
  • Warszawski L, Friend A, Ostberg S, Frieler K, Lucht W, Schaphoff S, Beerling D, Cadule P, Ciais P, Clark DB, Kahana R, Ito A, Keribin R, Kleidon A, Lomas M, Nishina K, Pavlick R, Rademacher TT, Buechner M, Piontek F, Schewe J, Serdeczny O, Schellnhuber HJ. 2013. A multi-model analysis of risk of ecosystem shifts under climate change. Environmental Research Letters 8, 044018 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044018


  • Marthews TR, Malhi Y, Girardin CAJ, Silva-Espejo JE, Aragão LEO, Metcalfe DB, Rapp JM, Mercado LM, Fisher RA, Galbraith DR, Fisher JB, Salinas-Revilla N, Friend AD, Restrepo-Coupe N, Williams RJ. Carbon fluxes in six Amazonian and Andean forests: productivity, respiration and carbon use efficiency. Global Change Biology, 18, 2882-2898, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02728.x
  • Eriksson A, Betti L, Friend AD, Lycett SJ, Singarayer JS, von Cramon-Taubadel N, Valdes PJ, Balloux F, Manica A. Late Pleistocene climate change and the global expansion of anatomically modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published ahead of print September 17, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1209494109


  • Gerken T, Babel W, Hoffmann A, Biermann T, Herzog M, Friend AD, Li M, Ma Y, Foken T, Graf H-F. Submitted. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, doi:10.5194/hessd-8-10275-2011
  • Friend AD. 2011. Response of Earth's surface temperature to radiative forcing over AD 1-2009. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 116, D13112, doi:10.1029/2010JD015143
  • Zaehle S, Ciais P, Friend AD, Prieur V. 2011. Carbon benefits of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen offset by nitrous oxide emissions. Nature Geoscience 4, 601-605, doi:10.1038/ngeo1207
  • Durant A, Le Quéré C, Hope C, Friend AD. 2011. Economic value of improved quantification in global sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A 369, 1967-1979, doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0002